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Petrochemical fire accidents and countermeasuresReleased in:2020-12-15 Browse:760 Source:Wuyue Hecheng

A, petroleum chemical industry fire accident cause fire accident < br / > chemical enterprises, general toxic or harmful gases (or liquid) of a large number of loss, because the most toxic big, easy to spread the characteristics of combustion and explosion, and therefore easy to cause massive pollution and a large number of casualties accident area, in staff especially in populous cities. There are three main causes of chemical fire accidents: 1. Operators violate regulations. Chemical production, storage and transportation have strict operating procedures, once the violation of regulations, there may be an accident. 2. Failure of enterprise equipment. Chemical products production needs high temperature, high pressure, low pressure, plus many raw materials and products have a strong corrosive, easy to cause a variety of pipe, valve, tower, cylinder corrosion, thus toxic substances run, risk, drop, leakage and other safety hazards. 3. Unexpected factors. This kind of accident is the accident caused by the chemical reaction out of control due to the sudden power cut and water cut in the chemical production process, as well as the spill caused by the collision and explosion of toxic substances in the transportation process. Chemical accidents caused by unexpected factors occur from time to time and the harm is serious. two, correctly identify the type of petrochemical fire petrochemical fire generally has three forms. 1. Stable combustion type fire. The flammable gas or flammable liquid can present a diffused combustion form in the leakage or open opening of its closed container, and the flame has no obvious fluctuation phenomenon, just like the torch lit. For example, in light oil tanks, top of liquefied petroleum gas tank, call valve, measuring hole, safety valve LPG combustion fire, the flame is vertical upward, the combustion range is only limited to a small opening. 2. Explosion fire. Some of the characteristics of this kind of fire explosion are first explosion, then combustion; Some burn first, then explode; Some only explode but do not burn. 3. Boiling-overflow fire. Generally form a huge pillar of fire, can be as high as 70 ~ 80 meters, downwind erupting oil fire rain can reach 120 meters or so. This kind of fire is easy to cause casualties, and also easy to form a large area of three-dimensional burning, harm and fight the most difficult. The characteristics of the petrochemical fire accident the petrochemical fire accident is different from the general fire accident, it has the following characteristics: 1, explosion risk is big. First of all, there are a lot of combustible raw materials or products in the equipment and pipelines of petrochemical production and storage places, which are prone to physical explosion after leakage explosion or expansion after heating. Secondly, the production unit is highly continuous and easy to form continuous explosion. In the end, multiple explosions can occur if the fire fighting procedures are not correct. 2. The fire develops fast. According to the calculation of fire fighting practice, in the case of petrochemical fire, the straight line spread speed of the flame can reach 2 ~ 3 m/s. At the same time, its combustion speed is also very fast, for example: gasoline fire can reach 80.9 kg/m2 * hour, benzene can reach 165.4 kg/m2 * hour. It burns and explodes so fast that nothing can prevent it. 3, easy to form a three-dimensional large area of combustion. When a fire occurs in a building or structure that produces and stores inflammable and explosive liquids and gases, it is easy to cause three-dimensional combustion due to the mutual influence between the building and the structure. In a gas fire, the gas whose proportion is greater than air diffuses from top to bottom and will form three-dimensional combustion when it meets the fire source. Under the influence of high temperature or thermal radiation, the volatilized vapor may flow from bottom to top and diffuse in the wind. In case of fire, it may flow or splash down, which is also easy to form three-dimensional combustion phenomenon. 4. Prone to reignition and reexplosion. In petrochemical fires, if the gas or oil fire is extinguished and not properly disposed in time, the residual will still burn or explode again, which must be paid high attention to in fire fighting. 5, the harm is great. Petrochemical fire burning speed, high calorific value, the heat radiation intensity of the fire site, easy to cause the rescue personnel injured. In addition, the leakage of toxic substances and the spread of flammable and explosive materials splash flowing, forming a large area, three-dimensional or multi-fire ignition, expanding and aggravating the scope and extent of the disaster, its toxic gas is also easy to cause fighting casualties. preparation of accurate and detailed plan can provide a reliable theoretical basis for the disposal of chemical accidents and save a lot of time for collecting relevant information from the site. A complete plan, first of all, the basis of the emergency rescue plan, there are mainly emergency rescue organization system, relevant legal provisions and industry regulations. Secondly, it makes clear the composition, responsibilities, division of tasks, contact information and operational requirements of rescue organizations and institutions. Finally refine yuanyuan chemical accident unit name, address, scale, production, storage and use of chemical species, risk characteristics, technological process and technical requirements, such as the location of the source of chemical accidents, the poisonous and harmful goods name, origin, may release the source of the strong, division as well as the direction, the hazards, etc., the corresponding disinfection, containment, protection, detection of technical requirements, near the personnel distribution, transportation, construction, water, weather conditions, such as fire fighting forces to rescue ability and social relief strength distribution, coordination, etc. a good plan is like a fire force equipped with advanced weapons and equipment, combined with the characteristics of chemical accident rescue and rescue, carry out science and technology training, greatly improving the high-quality fire force and rescue ability. The first is to learn the basic theoretical knowledge. Organize officers and soldiers to learn knowledge about chemistry, combustion and dangerous chemicals, especially the dangerous characteristics, combustion and explosion of dangerous chemicals involved in urban production, storage, transportation and distribution units. The second is to elaborate key training courses. In view of the characteristics of chemical accidents, some key subjects of treatment and protection were drawn up to improve the adaptability of the troops in actual rescue and rescue operations and highlight the training in protection and life-saving of the troops. Learn the general knowledge of protection, learn the use of protective equipment, train the operation of crossing the accident area and accident area, train the process disposal, attack and evacuation, be familiar with the protective action and master the methods of disinfection and first aid. Third, fire fighting and rescue drills should be carried out carefully. The drill is to train the organization and personnel involved in the rescue operation according to the set accident situation. The exercise can experience the coordination ability between the organization system; It can test the pertinence of the plan; Whether each rescue force and technical force are adapted to actual combat needs. In the chemical accident rescue and rescue work, fire brigades usually undertake the task of rescue and fire fighting, and should often carry out professional drills. petrochemical fire extinguish method petrochemical fire, have the characteristics of rapid development and spread of fire and large burning area. Therefore, when organizing and directing fire fighting and rescue, we must carry out the principle of first controlling, then destroying according to its fire characteristics, and flexibly use fire fighting tactics to effectively fight and rescue fire. And according to different burning materials and fire conditions, we should take corresponding tactical measures to quickly and safely extinguish the fire. 1, science plan to make fast. The key to put out petrochemical fire effectively lies in planning, that is, conducting fire fighting command according to scientific plan. For key parts of petrochemical enterprises, a feasible fire fighting plan must be formulated on the basis of investigation and research and tactical exercises, and the units planning to take part in the war should ensure that the commanders have a clear understanding of the battle plan. The driver has a clear idea of the route and where to park; The combatants have a clear idea of their tasks; The water man has a good knowledge of the water source. When there is a fire in yuan Yuan or parts of a petrochemical enterprise, it can act as planned. First, the dispatch force implements the plan command. According to the plan, all the required fire-fighting forces can be deployed to the fire site at one time; Secondly, all levels of commanders out according to the provisions of the plan, the respective command of the unit's route and on the scene after the combat operations, and in the light of the fire, take the initiative to conduct on-site command, do well in the coordination of operations, common completion of various combat tasks. In this way, it can be done to dispatch forces quickly, to the fire site quickly, fire reconnaissance quickly and the battle spread out quickly, methodically into the battle, with the petrochemical fire development fast characteristics, tit for tit, to fast control. It is very important to have fast command and action in the battle of petrochemical fire. Only by commanding according to the plan can we overcome the passive situation of dispatching fire fighting force. In order to give full play to the enthusiasm and initiative of fire commanders at all levels, consciously command the operational operations of their own units, and prevent the phenomenon that the chief fire commander is in a rush on the spot, paying attention to one thing and losing the other, the battalion commander is ordered by others, the scene is chaotic, and the fighter is delayed. Only the implementation of the command plan, can be fast and not chaotic, to gain time, seize the advantageous aircraft, with planned and rapid action, to overcome the rapid development of the petrochemical fire, a quick battle. 2. Cut off the fire and prevent its spread. Petrochemical fire, most of the situation is the materials, production equipment and buildings in a place on fire. When fighting such fires, the primary task is to control the development of the fire and eliminate the spread and expansion of the fire, that is, in the main aspect of the spread of the fire, deploy the ability to stop the fire. Prevent spread. If materials in petrochemical production and storage facilities catch fire, try to cool the building or tank structure, or reduce the burning intensity to prevent the building from igniting and enlarging the fire. Similarly, when a building or oil tank is on fire, the fire has a direct threat to the production equipment and its internal materials. In this case, we should concentrate our efforts to eliminate the threat of the fire to the production and storage equipment and prevent the spread and expansion of the fire. In addition, in petrochemical fire, due to the role of high temperature or explosion of storage tanks, containers and pipelines, when fracture occurs, there will be a large number of flammable and combustible liquid dispersive combustion, which rapidly expands and spreads the fire. In order to stop the flow of burning, the methods such as cutting off the source of burning liquid, embankment or diversion can be adopted to stop the development of fire and create favorable conditions for extinguishing fire. 3. Grasp the key points and eliminate dangerous situations. According to the characteristics of petrochemical fire prone to explosion, the fire brigade must find out the situation quickly when arriving at the fire site. For the fire site where explosion is taking place, favorable terrain and features should be selected for strong breakthrough. Organize a good cover force, make the attack force close to the point of explosion, according to the nature of the explosives, with strong water or other fire extinguishing agents, destroy the source of fire is causing the explosion, while cooling unexploded materials or equipment, eliminate the explosion risk; Material or equipment may be due to the influence of the fire explosion explosion, must organize assault force, take the key breakthrough tactics, the breakthrough of fireworks, fire control, eliminate the threat of the fire of explosive material or equipment, material for threatened at the same time, should try to evacuate, cooling for the fire fighting and rescue work safety conditions, and then organize fire fighting and rescue work. 4. Divide and surround, and make a quick decision. When a fire occurs in a storage tank, reactor or pipeline, it is first ignited in a tank or in a certain section. As the combustion progresses, the fire spreads to adjacent tanks or equipment. According to the characteristics of this kind of combustion, it is necessary to adopt the strategy of dividing and encircle the combustion tank or reactor to protect the adjacent tank, reactor and equipment. If several tanks or reactors are burning, the burning tanks or reactors must be divided and surrounded according to the fire extinguishing force and the specific situation of the fire site, and the fire shall be put out at the same time to achieve a quick and quick decision. In the fight against the burning torch on the storage tank, reactor and pipeline, the fire site commander must be prepared to put out the fire while deploying forces to cool the equipment. First of all, we should organize the water supply work of the fire site, select capable water lance, responsible for fire fighting and cover work, forming a situation to surround each torch. When the water lance hands into the fire position to test the water, then the commander issued unified orders for fire fighting. There are several specific methods to extinguish fire: under the cover of water, the combatants or workers close the valve of the gas pipeline; Tissue cover asphyxia; Cut off the flame with a dense stream of water to separate the combustible gas from the flame and extinguish the flame formed by the torch. In the process of fire fighting, it is necessary to keep the heated equipment cool to prevent damage to production and storage equipment, causing the spread of the fire.